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Qatar's oil and gas resources accounted for 28 percent of gross domestic product, 73 percent of export earnings, and 53 percent of government revenues in 2009. Hydrocarbons have given Qatar the highest per capita income in the world. With a population of less than 2 million and the world's third-largest proven gas reserves, Qatar looks forward to continued prosperity. Despite attempts to improve transparency, the Qatari government's management of the petroleum industry remains opaque.

Qatar's Performance on the Resource Governance Index

Qatar received a "failing" score of 26, ranking 54th out of 58 countries. Qatar has a relatively strong Enabling Environment, but scored extremely poorly on all other components.

(out of 58)
(out of 100)
54 Composite Score 26
55 Institutional & Legal Setting 15
Freedom of information law 0
Comprehensive sector legislation 0
EITI participation 0
Independent licensing process 0
Environmental and social impact assessments required 50
Clarity in revenue collection 50
Comprehensive public sector balance 33
SOC financial reports required 0
Fund rules defined in law 0
Subnational transfer rules defined in law N/A
54 Reporting Practices 14
Licensing process 17
Contracts 0
Environmental and social impact assessments 0
Exploration data 0
Production volumes 0
Production value 44
Primary sources of revenue 33
Secondary sources of revenue 0
Subsidies 0
Operating company names 0
Comprehensive SOC reports 33
SOC production data 24
SOC revenue data 43
SOC quasi fiscal activities 0
SOC board of directors 50
Fund rules 0
Comprehensive fund reports 0
Subnational transfer rules N/A
Comprehensive subnational transfer reports N/A
Subnational reporting of transfers N/A
54 Safeguards & Quality Controls 20
Checks on licensing process 0
Checks on budgetary process 0
Quality of government reports 28
Government disclosure of conflicts of interest 0
Quality of SOC reports 50
SOC reports audited 67
SOC use of international accounting standards 100
SOC disclosure of conflicts of interest 0
Quality of fund reports 0
Fund reports audited 17
Government follows fund rules 0
Checks on fund spending 0
Fund disclosure of conflicts of interest 0
Quality of subnational transfer reports N/A
Government follows subnational transfer rules N/A
10 Enabling Environment 66
Corruption (TI Corruption Perceptions Index & WGI control of corruption) 90
Open Budget (IBP Index) N/A
Accountability & democracy (EIU Democracy Index & WGI voice and accountability) 19
Government effectiveness (WGI) 78
Rule of law (WGI) 76
Satisfactory Weak
Partial Failing
To explore all data and compare
scores, use the RGI Data Tool.

Institutional & Legal Setting (Rank: 55th/58, Score: 15/100) learn more

There are few published laws or regulations guiding Qatar's petroleum industry, resulting in a "failing" score of 15.

Qatar Petroleum, a state-owned company, controls the upstream and downstream petroleum sector. The company does not grant concessions but it does sign production sharing contracts with private companies following direct negotiations.

Government agencies provide very little information on the legal framework governing natural resources. No supervisory or regulatory body oversees resource extraction or revenue management. Qatar has no freedom of information law.

Reporting Practices (Rank: 54th/58, Score: 14/100) learn more

The government provides no information on negotiations with oil companies or contract terms, and the precise whereabouts of Qatar's resource revenues are unknown, earning it a "failing" score of 14.

Production sharing agreements are announced only by press releases containing very limited information. Environmental impact assessments are required, but the results are not disclosed.

The government does not consistently publish data on financial flows. The central bank publishes information on an irregular basis about oil prices, the value of exports, and production stream values.

Safeguards & Quality Controls (Rank: 54th/58, Score: 20/100) learn more

Qatar received a "failing" score of 20, reflecting insufficient audit mechanisms and a lack of public oversight.

Qatar has no elected legislature, and there is no equivalent of parliamentary monitoring of the petroleum industry, although the emir's Council of Ministers has limited oversight responsibilities. Licensing decisions cannot be appealed, and petroleum revenues do not appear to be audited. There is no requirement that government officials report their financial interests in the sectors they administer.

Enabling Environment (Rank: 10th/58, Score: 66/100) learn more

Qatar received a "partial" score of 66, by far its highest on any component. Very high global rankings for corruption control, government effectiveness, and the rule of law offset very low levels of democratic accountability.

State-Owned Companies (Rank: 30th/45, Score: 37/100) learn more

Qatar Petroleum manages production sharing contracts on behalf of the state and receives payments from petroleum companies, while also conducting its own extractive activities. In 2009 it produced 42 percent of Qatar's oil. The company publishes an annual audited report that includes data on capital expenditures, production costs, the names of companies operating in Qatar, royalties, special taxes, and dividends. No information is published on the transfer of funds from Qatar Petroleum to the government, and government agencies do not report how such funds are used.

Natural Resource Funds (Rank: 21st/23, Score: 2/100) learn more

The objective of the Qatar Investment Authority is to diversify national revenues and minimize the country's vulnerability to fluctuations in global energy prices. The Investment Authority is a founding member of the International Working Group of Sovereign Wealth Funds and a signatory of the Generally Accepted Principles and Practices for Sovereign Wealth Funds. However, it consistently fails to provide adequate information about cash transfers from the government. While it does not disclose the value of its assets, media reports suggest the fund is worth $135 billion.

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