Fiscal Regimes

A fiscal regime is the set of instruments (e.g., taxes, royalties, dividends) that determines how the often-vast sums of funds generated by oil, gas and mining projects are shared between the state and investors. Fiscal instruments are generally set by legislation or specific contracts and can vary significantly from one extractive project to another. In addition, the way in which royalty and taxes are applied can also have a significant effect on the actual size of the revenues that are collected. This factsheet provides an introduction to the different elements of a fiscal regime and suggests various questions and strategies members of parliament can follow for establishing effective fiscal policies and conducting oversight.