Myanmar (Burma)

Natural resource revenue sharing will undoubtedly be on the table in the upcoming discussions on federalism in Myanmar. This paper outlines the current state of fiscal decentralization, describes the size and location of extractive activities, and shares good practices for resource revenue distribution, drawing on international experiences.

Myanmar’s natural resources, including deposits of oil, natural gas, gemstones and other minerals, have attracted growing interest from foreign and domestic investors at a time of regulatory and institutional change. A newly-elected government led by the National League for Democracy (NLD) appears poised to expand on major political and economic reforms that began in 2010.

Nowhere is the importance – or the challenge – of state-owned economic enterprise management clearer than in the oil and gas sector. While Myanmar’s continued economic opening should attract more investment in this sector, these SEEs already wield outsized influence over public finances.

As Myanmar seeks to build more modern and open oil, gas and mining industries, the state-owned economic enterprises (SEEs) active in these sectors will play a critical role. Enhancing the effectiveness of these SEEs will be an important goal of Myanmar’s continued economic reform as the country embarks upon its post-election transition.

NRGI’s blog received tens of thousands of unique visits this year. Below, we share the 10 most-read blog pieces of 2015. From country-specific perspectives to globally relevant policy discussions, NRGI experts offered news, insight and prescriptions over the course of the year.

This photo essay is the sixth installment in NRGI's 2015 extractive industries photo documentary project, which aims to capture the complex political, environmental and social realities at resource extraction sites throughout Myanmar.


This photo essay is the fifth installment in NRGI's 2015 extractive industries photo documentary project, which aims to capture the complex political, environmental and social realities at resource extraction sites throughout Myanmar.


This photo essay is the fourth installment in NRGI's 2015 extractive industries photo documentary project, which aims to capture the complex political, environmental and social realities at resource extraction sites throughout Myanmar.


In the third of a series of photo essays by six different photographers in Myanmar, Andre Malerba documents the health and economic impacts of both locally owned and corporate gold mining.


In the second of a series of photo essays by six different photographers in Myanmar, Minzayar documents the way in which jade from Myanmar makes its way, untaxed, to bustling Chinese markets.


In the first of a series of photo essays by six different photographers in Myanmar, Lauren DeCicca has documented the challenging circumstances faced by community members living alongside the giant copper mine.


In 2014, NRGI commissioned images by a Myanmar photographer, Minzayar, of the illegal jade miners that have flowed into the country’s northern Kachin state in pursuit of higher incomes. The project allowed thousands of viewers worldwide to connect faces to one of the most famously controversial aspects of the country’s extractive economy. Because of the attention and interest generated by Minzayar’s photos, NRGI has committed to further visually mapping extractives realities in Myanmar.

This week, 29 participants from 13 countries — including Ghana, Chile, Uganda, Myanmar, Mongolia and Guinea — are taking part in our third annual Executive Course in Oil, Gas and Mining Governance in Oxford.

For the first time since it won in 1990, the National League for Democracy (NLD), led by Aung San Suu Kyi, will be contesting a general election. (The NLD won 43 out of 45 seats in a 2012 by-election.) Should the party or a coalition of opposition parties win, Myanmar will have its first majority civilian government in Myanmar in 53 years.

Myanmar’s citizens have the potential to benefit from the country’s endowments of oil, gas, and gems, but governance of these industries has been historically problematic and so many actors are pushing for change. Last month, NRGI staff began working with EITI stakeholders in Myanmar on a new project that will use the Natural Resource Charter to help build consensus on priorities for extractive industries reform.

As part of our programming, NRGI has developed five briefings offering an overview of the current situation in Myanmar's extractive sector on the following topics: EITI, contract disclosure, revenue management, state-owned enterprises and fiscal regimes.

Members of parliament (MPs) require robust information about oil, gas and mineral revenues in order to effectively monitor government management of these resources in the public interest and to fully understand the origin of the revenues that enter (or in some cases fail to enter) the national budget...

In December, the Natural Resource Governance Institute (NRGI), in partnership with a team of trainers at the Yangon School of Journalism (YJS) launched the first dedicated, comprehensive course for journalists...

The road from Myitkyina to Hpakant is one of the worst I have ever traveled. After nine hours on this bumpy mountain path dotted with military checkpoints, I enter the heart of Myanmar’s jade country...

NRGI recently commissioned images by a Myanmar photographer, Minzayar, who has documented the lives of the illegal jade miners flowing into Kachin state in the north of Myanmar as they pursue higher incomes.